Cancer types

Cancer types

The most frequent types of cancer differ between man and woman.
Death from cancer worldwide is projected to continue rising, partly as a result of demographic development, with an estimated 13 million deaths in 2030.

>> cancer worldwide

Brain tumor

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Brain tumor

Brain tumors are comparatively rare and only make up about 2% of all cancer cases.
In 2012 for example, about 256,000 people were newly diagnosed with brain tumor, 189,000 died from this form of cancer.
Among the sufferers are many children, who seem to be very susceptible to brain tumors, which often emanate from the so called glia cells which are located in the central nervous system.

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

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Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

Nasopharyngeal carcinomas are rather uncommon in Central Europe and North America.
In Europe, about 4,000 people were diagnosed with nasopharyngeal cancer in 2012 and around 2,000 died from the disease that year.

Colorectal cancer

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Colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most prevalent cancer type worldwide, with over 1.36 million new cases diagnosed every year and 694,000 patients dying from it.
The incidence of colorectal cancer ranks 3rd in men and 2nd in women.
More than 9 out of 10 people diagnosed with colorectal cancer are older than 50.
Most CRCs develop from benign polyps in the bowel.
After many years, large polyps can change and develop into cancer.
One important preventative measure is checking for polyps and removing them if necessary.

Mortality rate of colorectal cancer patients

Today, the mortality rate of CRC patients is still as high as about 50%.
The five-year survival estimate for CRC patients on average is 55%, but is highly variable depending on the stage of the disease (from 74% for patients with stage I of the disease to only 6% for stage IV patients).

Treatment options for colorectal cancer

The standard therapies differ very strongly from region to region, but include chemotherapy regimens as well as biologics.
However, there remains a high unmet medical need for those patients who have failed the available standard therapies

Also Bayer is active in this area of oncology.

Breast cancer

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Breast cancer

Worldwide, more than 1.7 Million women were diagnosed with a breast tumor in 2012, making it the most common cancer type among women.
It is often diagnosed after the age of 60.
More than half a million women died of breast cancer in 2012 (522,000).
Even though breast cancer can often be cured these days if diagnosed at an early stage, it can also recur at any time, and most recurrences occur in the first three to five years after initial treatment.
The most common sites of recurrence include the lymph nodes, bones, liver, and lungs.

Treatment options for breast cancer

Current therapies range from surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy to hormone therapy and targeted therapies.
Surgery is usually the first line of attack against breast cancer.
In some cases, chemotherapy is given before surgery to shrink the cancer.
Radiation therapy is a targeted and effective way to destroy cancer cells that may stick around in the breast after surgery and can reduce the recurrence risk by about 70%.
In addition, hormone therapy is available to hormone-receptorpositive breast cancers.
Last but not least, targeted cancer therapies attack specific cancer cell characteristics of breast cancer tumors.

Also Bayer is active in this area of oncology.

Thyroid cancer

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Thyroid cancer

There are about 298,000 new thyroid cancer cases worldwide every year.
In 2012, about 40,000 people died from thyroid cancer.
It is one of the few cancer types increasing in number.
Most cases of thyroid cancer are diagnosed between the ages of 25 and 65, although it can develop at any age.
About three times as many women get thyroid cancer compared to men.
The so-called differentiated type of thyroid cancer represents approximately 95% of newly diagnosed cases.

Treatment options for thyroid cancer

Surgical removal of part of or the entire thyroid gland is the most common form of treatment for thyroid cancer that has not spread to other areas of the body.
Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and radioactive iodine treatment are also treatment options for thyroid cancer.

Also Bayer is active in this area of oncology.

Esophageal cancer

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Esophageal cancer

This cancer mostly affects men in their mid-50s.
In 2012, 456,000 people were newly diagnosed with esophageal cancer worldwide and 400,000 people died from this disease.
Esophageal cancer appears about five times more frequently in the East Asian region than in Europe.
The reason for this might be differing eating and drinking habits.

Lymphomas

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Lymphomas

Malignant lymphomas are cancerous diseases of the lymphatic system and the most common form of hematological malignancy, or "blood cancer", in the developed world. In 2012, more than 566,000 people were diagnosed worldwide with this form of cancer and about 305,000 deaths occurred.
The first signs of a possible lymphoma are painless swellings of the lymph nodes, mostly on the neck or in the armpit.

There are four types of lymphomas that are categorized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as follows: Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma and immuno-proliferative diseases.
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) makes up about 90% of cases and is the sixth leading site of new cancer diagnoses amongst men and women, accounting for 4% of all new cancer cases. NHL includes a large number of sub-types, which are classified by the WHO according to their origin (B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells) and to their stage of development (precursor or mature lymphomas).

Non-Hodgkin lymphomas can also be divided into two prognostic groups: indolent and aggressive lymphomas.

  • Indolent NHLs (iNHLs) are slow-growing cancer types with a median survival of 10 to 20 years. Whilst early-stage iNHLs are responsive to immuno-, radiation- and chemotherapy, a continuous rate of relapse is usually seen in advanced stages.
  • Aggressive NHLs have a shorter natural history, but a significant number of these patients can be cured with intensive combination chemotherapy regimens.
Also Bayer is active in this area of oncology.

Gallbladder cancer

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Gallbladder cancer

Gallbladder cancer is a malignant tumor which starts in the gallbladder mucosa.
This type of cancer is very rare.
This type of cancer is very rare. With 178,000 newly diagnosed cases a year, it makes up for only 1% of all cancers worldwide.
An estimated 142,000 patients died from gallbladder cancer in 2012.
The cancer usually manifests itself after the age of 60.

Liver cancer

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Liver cancer

With over 780,000 new cases diagnosed worldwide every year, liver cancer is the number six most common cancer.
More than 50% of all diagnosed cases are recorded in China, Japan and South Korea alone, over 50,000 in the countries of the European Union, and about 30,000 in the United States.
Overall, men are significantly more frequently affected than women.
Liver cancer causes death more often than many other tumors, not least because patients are usually diagnosed too late.
It is thus the third most common cause of death by cancer.
In Europe, not even one in ten patients survives the first five years after diagnosis. That is why early detection of a liver cell carcinoma is crucial for a successful treatment.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as most common form of liver cancer

By far the most common form of liver cancer is liver-cell carcinoma, or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In adults, it accounts for about 90% of primary malignant liver tumors.
Often, HCC begins with an inflammation of the liver (hepatitis): in eight out of ten patients who develop liver cell cancer, the malignant change is preceded by chronic hepatitis B.
Hepatitis C is also regarded as a potential tumor precursor, as is liver cirrhosis, a pathological change in the liver tissue involving shrinkage.Many years can pass before the carcinoma develops: 20 to 30 years after chronic hepatitis C, for example. Other risk factors may also increase the likelihood of a liver tumor developing such as excessive alcohol consumption and morbid obesity.

Also Bayer is active in this area of oncology.

Stomach cancer

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Stomach cancer

In 2012, more than 950,000 people worldwide contracted stomach cancer and 723,000 died from the disease.
Mostly people in the second half of their life, i.e. above the age of 60, develop this kind of cancer.
Experts see the main risks for stomach cancer in an unhealthy diet and pathogens such as Helicobacter pylori.
Stomach cancer incidence ranks 4th for men and 5th for women.

All in all, the number of cases is declining in industrialized nations.

Leukemia

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Leukemia

Leukemia is a cancerous disease of the hematopoietic system.
In the year 2012, more than 352,000 people were diagnosed with leukemia, and 265,000 patients died.
Leukemia is characterized by an uncontrolled increase of leukocytes in the bone marrow. These leukocytes are not fully developed and are inoperable.
As a result, the normal process of blood building is disturbed, leading to a lack of developed and functional leukocytes, red blood cells and blood platelets.

Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST)

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Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST)

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are relatively rare malignant tissue tumors (sarcomas) in the gastrointestinal tract.
According to information of the World Health Organisation (WHO), GISTs account for about 11-20 new cancer cases per 1 million worldwide and most commonly affect older people, usually over the age of 50.
Most patients do not experience specific symptoms.
As the tumor grows outwards, there is usually no obstruction of the gut.
Very often, GIST tumors are only found by chance, which is why diagnosis is often made when the tumor has already spread.
GIST tumors are characterized by two very typical gene mutations in the tumor cells. Mutations in these genes cause internal cellular signals to go out of control. This has enabled scientists to develop a targeted approach to therapy, by concentrating on these mutations.

Treatment options for GIST

There are currently three targeted therapies for GIST treatment available if the tumor cannot be surgically removed and/or has already spread.

Also Bayer is active in this area of oncology.

Prostate cancer

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Prostate cancer

Prostate cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed malignancy in men worldwide.
In 2012, an estimated 1.1 million men were diagnosed with prostate cancer, and about 307,000 died from the disease worldwide.
Prostate cancer is the fifth leading cause of death from cancer in men.

Prostate cancer results from the abnormal proliferation of cells within the prostate gland, which is part of a man´s reproductive system.
Prostate cancer mainly affects men over the age of 50, and the risk increases with age.

Treatment options for prostate cancer

Treatment options for prostate cancer range from surgery to radiation treatment to therapy using hormone-receptor antagonists, i.e. substances that stop the formation of testosterone or prevent its effect at the target location.
However, in nearly all cases the cancer will become resistant to hormone therapy.

Hormone-refractory prostate cancer (CRPC)

When the tumor grows despite castrate levels of testosterone, the prostate cancer is referred to as castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). CRPC is an advanced form of prostate cancer and is characterized by persistent, high-level androgen receptor (AR) function and resistance to conventional anti-androgens.
The majority of CRPC patients have radiological evidence of bone metastases, which are the main cause of disability and death in CRPC patients.
Bone metastases frequently occur in advanced cancer stages.

Treatment options for hormone-refractory prostate cancer

Chemotherapy is currently used in the management of CRPC. Besides the established standard treatments for CRPC, several new agents were approved for prostate cancer recently. But there is no standard treatment for CRPC patients who have rising Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) levels during androgen-deprivation therapy and no detectable metastases. In men with progressive non-metastatic CRPC, a short PSA doubling time has been consistently associated with reduced time to first metastasis and death.

There remains a high medical need in CRPC patients with predominant bone metastases, as the morbidity and mortality from bone metastases is still high.

Also Bayer is active in this area of oncology.

Ovarian cancer

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Ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer (ovarian carcinoma) is a malignant tumor of the ovaries.
Approximately 239,000 women are diagnosed with ovarian cancer each year. In 2012, 152,000 women died from this disease.
Ovarian cancer is most common in women older than their fifties and only shows symptoms at a very advanced stage.

Testicular cancer

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Testicular cancer

Testicular cancer is a very rare form of cancer, mostly developing in men between 15 and 39 years old.
At this age, testicular cancer makes up 8,8% of all cancer diseases, making it one of the most common forms of cancer among young men.
Every year, about 4,000 young men are diagnosed with testicular cancer in Germany.
After treatment, more than 90% of them will recover and be able to lead healthy lives.

Cervical cancer

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Cervical cancer

Cancer of the Cervix uteri is the number four most common malignant tumor in women.
On average, 528,000 women a year are newly diagnosed with this form of cancer, 266,000 women died of cervical cancer in 2012 alone.
The most common cause of cervical cancer is an infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 or 18.
Smoking plays an important role, too. A vaccination against the high-risk HPV prevents infection, thereby reducing the risk of developing cervical cancer.

Carcinoma of the urinary bladder

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Carcinoma of the urinary bladder

Carcinoma of the urinary bladder is responsible for about 3% of newly diagnosed cancers worldwide (430,000 cases).
Men bear a higher risk of contracting urinary bladder cancer than women. In 2012, 123,000 patients out of an estimated 165,000 deaths caused by urinary bladder cancer were men.
The average age of contraction is 72 years for men and 74 years for women. Smoking increases the risk of urinary bladder cancer significantly.
Moreover, passive smokers are also affected.

Skin cancer

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Skin cancer

Skin cancer is on the increase in fair-skinned populations worldwide.
Taking together all differing forms of skin cancer, it is already the most prevalent type of cancer in Germany. Detailed numbers are missing, because most of the time a simple surgical removal of the tumor is absolutely sufficient.

The rodent ulcer also known as "black skin cancer" (melanoma) is the most dangerous form of skin cancer, as its cancer cells spread rapidly across the lymphatic system or the bloodstream. In 2012, more than 55,000 patients died from this form of cancer worldwide.

Lung cancer

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Lung cancer

Lung cancer is the most common cancer in men in developed countries, and is one of the cancers with a high death rate, with a five year survival rate of 10-15%.
Worldwide, 1.8 million people are diagnosed with lung cancer and 1.6 million die from it every year. Tobacco smoking is the cause of most lung cancers.
It contains over 60 known cancer-causing agents (carcinogens) that are inhaled directly into the lungs.
But there are other factors, too. Exposure to asbestos, radon, environmental factors, or secondhand smoke can also cause lung cancer. Because lung cancer can take years to develop, and is often detected late, 80% of patients are diagnosed when they have already metastatic disease.
There are two types of lung cancer: Small-cell lung cancer is, with about 20%, the rarer form.
The majority of lung cancers are non-small-cell lung cancers.

Treatment options for lung cancer

The main treatment options are surgery, radiation and chemotherapy.Therapies to treat small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) are radiation and anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapy), while non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is treated with surgery or systemic anti-cancer drugs.
Recent advances in treatment have led to progress in therapies that are dependent on histology and genetics.

Also Bayer is active in this area of oncology.

Kidney cancer

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Kidney cancer

Malignant changes in kidney cells represent one of the rarer forms of cancer.
By far the most common form of renal cancer is renal-cell carcinoma.
In 2012, more than 337,000 people were diagnosed and more than 143,000 died from kidney cancer worldwide. In general, men are twice as likely to be affected as women.
At the age of 60, the chances of getting kidney cancer drastically increase. More than 90% of all cases are diagnosed in people above the age of forty-five.
Typical symptoms, such as blood in the urine, generally appear at a relatively late stage. Genetic factors have been linked to an increased risk of developing kidney cancer. For instance, a hereditary disorder called von-Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is associated with a high risk of developing kidney cancer. In addition, some external factors, such as smoking and obesity, have also been related to a higher incidence of kidney cancer.

Treatment options for kidney cancer

Even today, one of the best chances of curing a patient of kidney cancer is the surgical removal of all or part of the kidney.
If the tumor is detected at a later stage, the most commonly used treatments for kidney cancer are various forms of targeted therapies or immunotherapy.
Other traditional, but less-often used, treatments include radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

Also Bayer is active in this area of oncology.

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